Avicenna’s Concepts on Cancer Metastasis from the 11th Century

Sina Kardeh, Bahareh Kardeh

From ancient times to the era of industrialization, medical and philosophical scholars have long been wondering about the nature and the underlying mystery of cancer. Despite the extensive efforts in recent decades trying to shed light on the true histopathologic basis of malignancies, many questions remain to be elucidated. Thus, it's not surprising that even the most notable predecessor physicians knew only very little about cancer and metastasis. In this paper, we present a brief review of the historical assumptions about the origin and spread of tumoral growths. Subsequently, we will look at an impressing notion by Avicenna about the possibility of local metastasis, which had remained unacknowledged so far and highlights the intellect of this great Persian physician even further. [GMJ.2019;In press:e1292] 

Avicenna; Breast; Cancer; Metastasis

Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell. 2000;100(1):57-70.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81683-9

Arnold M, Pandeya N, Byrnes G, Renehan AG, Stevens GA, Ezzati M, et al. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(1):36-46.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71123-4

Vineis P, Wild CP. Global cancer patterns: causes and prevention. Lancet. 2014;383(9916):549-57.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62224-2

Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet‐Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(2):87-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21262

PMid:25651787

Papac RJ. Origins of cancer therapy. Yale J Biol Med. 2001;74(6):391.

PMid:11922186 PMCid:PMC2588755

MR Zimmerman. An experimental study of mummification pertinent to the antiquity of cancer. Cancer. 1977;40(3):1358-62.

https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(197709)40:3<1358::AID-CNCR2820400354>3.0.CO;2-J

Zheng Q, Nan K, Zheng H. Hippocrates' viewpoint on cancer. Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi. 2010;40(4):234-6.

PMid:21122344

Ward JF, Eggener SE. Active surveillance monitoring: the role of novel biomarkers and imaging. Asian J Androl. 2015;17(6):882.

https://doi.org/10.4103/1008-682X.156858

PMid:26112488 PMCid:PMC4814962

Zaid H, Rayan A, Said O, Saad B. Cancer treatment by Greco-Arab and Islamic herbal medicine. Open Nutra J. 2010;3:203-12.

https://doi.org/10.2174/18763960010030100203

Sudhakar A. History of Cancer, Ancient and Modern Treatment Methods. J Cancer Sci Ther. 2009;1(2):1-4.

https://doi.org/10.4172/1948-5956.100000e2

PMid:20740081 PMCid:PMC2927383

Reedy J. Galen on cancer and related diseases. Clio Med. 1975;10(3):227-38. PMid:50913

Kardeh S, Choopani R, Mahmoudi Nezhad GS, Zargaran A. The Urinary Catheter and Its Significant Applications Described by Avicenna (980-1037 AD) in the Canon of Medicine. Urology. 2014;84(5):993-6.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2014.07.039

PMid:25443893

Lu D-Y, Lu T-R, Wu H-Y, Cao S. Cancer Metastasis treatments. Current Drug Therapy. 2013;8(1):24-9.

https://doi.org/10.2174/1574885511308010003

Salmanpoor R, Saki N, Sepaskhah M, Aslani FS, Kardeh B. A metastatic cancer to skin in an otherwise asymptomatic young man: an unusual presentation. Dermatol Online J. 2013;19(10). PMid:24139375

Weiss L. Observations on the antiquity of cancer and metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2000;19(3):193-204.

https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010646304844

Weiss L. Concepts of metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2000;19(3-4):219-34.

https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010650405753

Zargaran A, Mehdizadeh A, Zarshenas MM, Mohagheghzadeh A. Avicenna (980-1037 AD). J Neurol. 2012;259(2):389- 90.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-011-6219-2

PMid:21887514

Avicenna. The Canon of Medicine. Vol.4. Translated by Sharafkandi A. Tehran: Soroush Press; 2010;388.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.