Cover Image

A Comparative Study of the Ability of Facial Emotional Expression Recognition and its Relationship with Communication Skills in Iranian Patients with Mood Disorders

Seyed Hamid Seyednezhad Golkhatmi, Samaneh Homayoni, Nour Mohammad Bakhshani, SeyedAlireza Sadjadi, Mohsen Saidian Asl

Background: Facial emotion recognition impairment in psychiatric patients such as those with mood disorders and impaired communication skills in these patients is one of the most important issues. The present study aims to evaluate and compare facial emotion recognition among patients with depression, bipolar disorder who experience manic phase and the subjects of the normal group without a diagnosis of a disorder. Moreover, the present study aims to evaluate and compare the relationship between facial emotion recognition ability and communication skills among these patients. Materials and Methods: Participants of this study included 30 patients with depression, 30 patients with bipolar disorder and 30 subjects from a normal group; a total of 90 subjects who were selected using convenience sampling method. PC version of Ekman’s facial emotion test (1976) and Queendom’s interpersonal communication skills test (2004) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using statistical tests of correlation, one way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The findings showed that there was a significant difference between facial emotion recognition in patients with mood disorder and the normal group. Moreover, there was a correlation between facial emotion recognition and communication skills among these patients. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study on facial emotion recognition impairment and its significant relationship with communication skills in patients with mood disorder, it can be said that paying attention to them is very important in treating these disorders and reducing the relapse of the disease.[GMJ. 2015;4(3):90-99]

Facial Emotional Expressions; Communication and Interpersonal Skill; Bipolar Disorder; Depression Disorder

Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Zeller PJ, Paulus M, Leon AC, Maser JD, et al. Psychosocial disability during the long-term course of unipolar major depressive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(4):375-80.

Uekermann J, Kraemer M, Abdel-Hamid M, Schimmelmann BG, Hebebrand J, Daum I, et al. Social cognition in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;34(5):734-43.

Darwin C. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. United Kingdom John Murray. 1872.

Derntl B, Seidel EM, Kryspin-Exner I, Hasmann A, Dobmeier M. Facial emotion recognition in patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder. Br J Clin Psychol. 2009;48(Pt 4):363-75.

Surguladze SA, Young AW, Senior C, Brebion G, Travis MJ, Phillips ML. Recognition accuracy and response bias to happy and sad facial expressions in patients with major depression. Neuropsychology. 2004;18(2):212-8.

Yoon KL, Joormann J, Gotlib IH. Judging the intensity of facial expressions of emotion: depression-related biases in the processing of positive affect. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118(1):223-8.

Suslow T, Dannlowski U, Lalee-Mentzel J, Donges US, Arolt V, Kersting A. Spatial processing of facial emotion in patients with unipolar depression: a longitudinal study. J Affect Disord. 2004;83(1):59-63.

Bouhuys AL, Geerts E, Gordijn MC. Depressed patients' perceptions of facial emotions in depressed and remitted states are associated with relapse: a longitudinal study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187(10):595-602.

Hale WW, 3rd. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence. Psychiatry Res. 1998;80(3):265-74.

LeMoult J, Joormann J, Sherdell L, Wright Y, Gotlib IH. Identification of emotional facial expressions following recovery from depression. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118(4):828-33.

Bozikas VP, Kosmidis MH, Tonia T, Andreou C, Focas K, Karavatos A. Impaired perception of affective prosody in remitted patients with bipolar disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;19(4):436-40.

Summers M, Papadopoulou K, Bruno S, Cipolotti L, Ron MA. Bipolar I and bipolar II disorder: cognition and emotion processing. Psychol Med. 2006;36(12):1799-809.

Kan Y, Mimura M, Kamijima K, Kawamura M. Recognition of emotionfrom moving facial and prosodic stimuli in depressed patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(12):1667-71.

Csukly G, Czobor P, Szily E, Takacs B, Simon L. Facial expression recognition in depressed subjects: the impact of intensity leveland arousal dimension. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197(2):98-103.

Langenecker SA, Bieliauskas LA, Rapport LJ, Zubieta JK, Wilde EA, Berent S. Face emotion perception and executive functioning deficits in depression. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005:27(3):320-33.

Gaebel W, Wolwer W. Facial expression and emotional face recognition in schizophrenia and depression. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992;242(1):46-52.

Harmer CJ, Grayson L, Goodwin GM. Enhanced recognition of disgust in bipolar illness. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;51(4):298-304.

Mikhailova ES, Vladimirova TV, Iznak AF, Tsusulkovskaya EJ, Sushko NV. Abnormal recognition of facial expression of emotions in depressed patients with major depression disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40(8):697-705.

Bozikas VP, Tonia T, Fokas K, Karavatos A, Kosmidis MH. Impaired emotion processing in remitted patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2006;91(1):53-6.

McClure EB, Treland JE, Snow J, Schmajuk M, Dickstein DP, Towbin KE, et al. Deficits in social cognition and response flexibility in pediatric bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(9):1644-51.

Uekermann J, Daum I. Social cognition in alcoholism: a link to prefrontal cortex dysfunction? Addiction. 2008;103(5):726-35.

Segrin C. Social skills deficits associated with depression. Clinical Psychology Review. 2000;20(3):379-403.

Mittal VA, Walker EF. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2011;189(1):158-9.

Joiner T, & Coyne, (Eds.) JC. The interactional nature of depression: Advances in interpersonal approaches. In: Psychological A, Association, editors. Washington, DC1999.

Segrin C. Interpersonal processes in psychological problems. Guilford Press. 2001.

Westerman MA. Interpersonal processes in psychological problems. Contemp Psychol. 2003;48(5):570-3.

Chau PM, & Milling LS. Impact of dysphoria and self-consciousness on perceptions of social competence. Test of the depressive realism hypothesis. Clinical Psychologist. 2006;10:99–108.

Segrin C. Social skills deficits associated with depression. Clin Psychol Rev. 2000;20(3):379-403.

van Beek Y, van Dolderen MSM, Dubas JJSD. Gender-specific development of nonverbal behaviours and mild depression in adolescence. J Child Psychol Psyc. 2006;47(12):1272-83.

Petty SC, Sachs-Ericsson N, Joiner TE. Interpersonal functioning deficits: temporary or stable characteristics of depressed individuals? J Affect Disorders. 2004;81(2):115-22.

Perez JE, Riggio RE, Kopelowicz A. Social skill imbalances in mood disorders and schizophrenia. Pers Indiv Differ. 2007;42(1):27-36.

Nilsen W, Karevold E, Roysamb E, Gustavson K, MathiesenKS. Social skills and depressive symptoms across adolescence: Social support as a mediator in girls versus boys. J Adolesc. 2012 Sep 18.

Ekman P, Friesen W. Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. 1976.

Queendom. Interpersonal and Communication Skills Test- Revised [Intenet] . [cited 2012 jun 4th]. Available from: http://www.Queendom.com/cgi-bin/tests/transfercgi.

Douglas KM, Porter RJ, Johnston L. Sensitivity to posed and genuine facial expressions of emotion in severe depression. Psychiat Res. 2012;196(1):72-8.

Kohler CG, Hoffman LJ, Eastman LB, Healey K, Moberg PJ. Facial emotion perception in depression and bipolar disorder: A quantitative review. Psychiat Res. 2011;188(3):303-9.

Schaefer KL, Baumann J, Rich BA, Luckenbaugh DA, Zarate CA. Perception of facial emotion in adults with bipolar or unipolar depression and controls. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(16):1229-35.

Calvo MG, Lundqvist D. Facial expressions of emotion (KDEF): identification under different display-duration conditions. Behav Res Methods. 2008;40(1):109-15.

Palermo R, Coltheart M. Photographs of facial expression: accuracy, response times, and ratings of intensity. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 2004;36(4):634-8.

Leppanen JM, Milders M, Bell JS, Terriere E, Hietanen JK. Depression biases the recognition of emotionally neutral faces. Psychiatry Res. 2004;128(2):123-33.

Segrin C, Rynes KN. The mediating role of positive relations with others in associations between depressive symptoms, social skills, and perceived stress. J Res Pers. 2009;43(6):962-71.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.