Instructions for Authors

Preparing your manuscript (Original Article)

The information below details the section headings that you should include in your manuscript and what information should be within each section.



The abstract should not exceed 300 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • Background: the context and purpose of the study
  • Materials and Methods: a brief description of the methods
  • Results: the main findings
  • Conclusions: a brief summary and potential implications



Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article according to MeSH terms.



The introduction section should explain the background to the study, its aims, a summary of the existing literature and why this study was necessary.


Materials and Methods 

The methods section should include:

  • the aim, design, and setting of the study
  • the characteristics of the animal and/or human or description of materials
  • a clear description of all processes, interventions, and comparisons. Generic names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses
  • the type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate



This should include the findings of the study including, if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and figures.



For original articles, this section should discuss the implications of the findings in the context of existing research and highlight the limitations of the study. For study protocols and methodology manuscripts, this section should include a discussion of any practical or operational issues involved in performing the study and any issues not covered in other sections.



This should state clearly the main conclusions and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the study to the field.



All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading 'Declarations':

  • Ethics approval and consent to participate
  • Consent for publication
  • Availability of data and material
  • Competing interests
  • Funding
  • Authors' contributions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Authors' information (optional)

Please see General Formation Guideline for details on the information to be included in these sections.

If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write 'Not applicable' for that section. 



All the references must be prepared by the Vancouver style. The original article could have up to 120 references. Also, please see the General Formation Guideline to prepared this section.


Figures, tables and additional files

See General Formation Guideline for information on how to format figures, tables, and additional files.