Geographic Stomatitis with Multiple Areas Involvement of Oral Cavity: A Case Report and Review of Literatures
AbstractBackground: Geographic stomatitis is an uncommon migratory benign lesion of oral mucosa with unknown etiology. It can affect all the areas of the oral mucosa, but the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue are the most commonly involved areas called geographic tongue. The clinical appearance of this condition is the oval or circular erythematous areas with irregular elevated keratotic borders. These characteristic features of geographic stomatitis are diagnostic for all clinicians when appearing on the dorsum of the tongue, despite other affected areas of oral mucosa that can confuse clinicians. This condition may be associated with some diseases such as psoriasis, Reiter’s syndrome, and atopic conditions, so the clinicians should rule out these diseases and diagnose the geographic stomatitis. Case Report: A 17-year-old male attended to our department for a routine dentistry checkup. During the intraoral examination, we found multiple erythematous areas surrounded by a thin white border on different surfaces of his oral cavity. His extraoral examinations were completely normal. Conclusion: Due to the rarity of this lesion on the other sites of oral mucosa rather than dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue such as labial mucosa, buccal mucosa, the floor of the mouth, ventral surface of the tongue, and palate, it is necessary to report, study and evaluate each case of this condition that clinicopathologic findings have confirmed this diagnosis, to treat and advice these patients on the best approach. [GMJ.2021;10:e2071]
Brooks JK, Balciunas BA. Geographic stomatitis: review of the literature and report of five cases. J Am Dent Assoc 1987; 115(3):421-4.
Hume WJ. Geographic stomatitis: a critical review. J Dent 1975; 3(1):25-43.
Zadik Y, Drucker S, Pallmon S. Migratory stomatitis (ectopic geographic tongue) on the floor of the mouth. JAAD 2011; 65(2):459-60.
Glick M. Burket's oral medicine. PMPH USA; 2015.
Filioreanu AM, Popa C, Maftei GA, Parlatescu I, Nicolae CL, Popescu E. MIGRATORY STOMATITIS-CASE PRESENTATION. J Oral Rehabil 2018;10(4):54-9.
Akkaya N, Karagul S, Kanli A. Geographic Stomatitis. Hacettepe Dis Hekimligi Dergisi 2008; 32(2):73-78.
Van der Wal N, Van Der Kwast W, Van Dijk E, Van der Waal I. Geographic stomatitis and psoriasis. Int J Oral Maxillofac 1988; 17(2):106-9.
González-Álvarez L, García-Pola MJ, Garcia-Martin JM. Geographic tongue: Predisposing factors, diagnosis and treatment. A systematic review. Rev Clin Esp 2018; 218(9):481-8.
Sajedi SM, Soltani HD, Bahadori P, Nouri M. Evaluate the prognostic of candidate biomarkers to stratify malignant progression of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. EurAsian J Biosci 2020; 14(2):6939-43.
Garma M, Hasni W, Hassouna M, Messaoud NB, Youssef SB, Boughzela A. Isolated Migratory Stomatitis: Report of A Rare Case. Int J Clin Dermatol Res 2018; 6(8):190-2.
Picciani B, Silva-Junior G, Carneiro S, Sampaio AL, Goldemberg DC, Oliveira J, Porto LC, Dias EP. Geographic stomatitis: an oral manifestation of psoriasis?. J Dermatol 2012; 6(4):113-6.
Flaitz CM. Ectopic erythema migrans in an adolescent with a skin disorder. Pediatr Dent 2000;22(1):63-4.
Espelid M, Bang G, Johannessen AC, Leira JI, Christensen O. Geographic stomatitis: report of 6 cases. J Oral Pathol Med 1991; 20(9):425-8.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).