Detection of Syphilis by Serologic Tests in Pregnant Iranian Women, Shiraz, Iran

Mohammad Motamedifar, Parvin Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Amin Taghinia, Yashgin Hassanzadeh

Background: Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum and transmitted via sexual contact, infected discharge and blood as well as vertical transmission. It causes various impacts on women during pregnancy and their newborns which results in various complications. Thus, screening of syphilis is routinely performed during pregnancy. Choosing to perform a specific screening test is based on the prevalence of the disease in the target population which needs adequate information in this regard. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women in Shiraz, South-west of Iran.

Methods: in this 15 month prospective study, 1100 pregnant women aged between 15 – 42 years, referred to University affiliated hospital in shiraz, Iran were included  Blood samples were obtained from all of our study population for performing RPR test. FTA-ABS serologic test was carried out on positive cases of RPR test.

Results: 15 suspicious cases with weakly positive RPR test were detected but in all of them FTA-ABS tests were negative.

Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of syphilis was low in our area which may be due to variable reasons, such as reduction in the rate of unsafe and unprotected sex, improving knowledge, and adequate health care services. More studies are still needed to decide whether syphilis screening is beneficial in our area and should be considered as a routine test in pregnancy.

Syphilis; Screening; Pregnancy; Prevalence

Sadeghi H, Arshi S, Habibzadeh S, Mortezazadeh A, Saifnejad S, Rohi A, et al. Seroepidemiology of syphilis in 20-50 year-old population of border areas of Ardabil province. Iranian journal of infectious diseases and tropical medicine. 2007; 12(36): 75-9. [In Persian]

Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., Watts, C. H. Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. The Lancet. 2006; 368(9543), 1260-1269.

Aiken CG. The cause of perinatal mortality in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 1992; 38: 263-81.

De la Calle M, Cruceyra M, de Haro M, Magdaleno F, Montero MD, Aracil J, et al. Syphilis and pregnancy: Study of 94 cases. Med Clin (Barc). 2013; doi:pii: S0025-7753(13)00077-8. 10.1016/j.medcli.2012.11.033. [Epub ahead of print] [In Spanish]

Tara F, Ensafi P. The necessity of performing the VDRL test for syphilis screening in Iran. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology And Infertility. 2001; 5(11-12): 44-7. [In Persian]

Ayatelahi J, Zare AR. Antenatal screening for syphilis in Yazd. Iranian journal of infectious diseases and tropical medicine. 2006; 11(32): 45-8. [In Persian]

Sharifi-mood B, Metanat M. The necessity of performing VDRL test during pregnancy in Sistan and Baluchestan province from 2002 till 2003. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2002; 5(11-12): 44-7. [In Persian]

Cheng JQ, Zhou H, Hong FC, Zhang D, Zhang YJ, Pan P, et al. Syphilis screening and intervention in 500000 pregnant women in Shenzhen, the people’s Republic of China. Sex TransmInfact. 2007; 83: 347-50.

Kizito D, Woodburn PW, Kesande B, Ameke C, Nabulime J, Muwanga M, et al. Uptake of HIV and syphilis testing of pregnant women and their male partners in a program for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Uganda. Trop Med Inter Health. 2008; 13: 680-2.

Hurtig AK, Nicoll A, Carne C, Lissauer T, Connor N, Webster JP, et al. Syphilis in pregnant women and their childrn in the United Kingdom: results from national clinician reporting surveys 1994-7. BMJ. 1998; 317: 1617-9.

Pankratov OV, Saluk YV, Klimova LV. Epidemiology of syphilis in pregnant women and congenital syphilis in Belarus. Acta Dermotoven APA. 2006; 15: 35-8.

Genc M, Ledger WJ. Syphilis in pregnancy. Sex Transm Inf. 2000; 76: 73-9.

National Center of Health Statistics, US Department Of Health and Human Services. Health aspect of pregnancy and childbirth: United States, 1980-1985. Vital and Health Statistics; 1995, series 23: No. 18.

Steiner MJ, Dominik R, Rounttree RW, Nanda K, Dorflinger LJ. Contraceptive effectiveness of a polyurethane condom and a latex condom: a randomized controlled trial. OsterGynecology, 2003; 101(3):539-47.

Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, et al. Effect of a syphilis control program on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Inf. 2000; 76: 117-21.

Kiddugavu MG, Kiwanuka N, Wawer MJ, Serwadda D, Sewankambo NK, Wabwire-Mangen F, et al. Effectiveness of syphilis treatment using azithromycin and/or benzathine penicillin in Rakai, Uganda. Sex Transm Dis. 2005; 32(1):

-6.

Mandelbrot L, Marcollet A. Syphilis and pregnancy. Rev Prat, 2004; 54(4): 392-5. [In French]

Wong T, Singh AE, De P. Primary syphilis: serological treatment response to doxycycline/tetracycline versus benzathine penicillin. Am J Med. 2008; 121(10): 903-8.

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology. 6 th ed. Mosby; 2009. Philadelphia, USA: 406-8.

Shakoor Z. Antenatal screening for syphilis at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh. Ann Saudi Med. 2004; 24(4): 262-4.

Lindstrand A, Bergström S, Bugalho A, Zanconato G, Helgesson AM, Hederstedt B. Prevalence of syphilis infection in Mozambican women with second trimester miscarriage and women attending antenatal care in second trimester. Genitourin Med. 1993; 69(6): 431-3.

Azeze B, Fantahun M, Kidan KG, Haile T. Seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural hospital in northwest Ethiopia. Genitourin Med. 1995; 71(6): 347-50.

Amaral E, Faúndes A, Gonçales NS, Pellegrino Júnior J, de Souza CA, Pinto e Silva JL. Prevalence of HIV and Treponema pallidum infections in pregnant women in campinas and their association with socio-demographic factors. Sao Paulo Med J. 1996; 114(2): 1108-16.

Obisesan KA, Ahmed Y. Routine antenatal syphilis screening--a case against. Afr J Med Sci. 1996; 28(3-4): 185-7.

Narducci F, Switala I, Rajabally R, Decocq J, Delahousse G. Maternal and congenital syphilis. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1998; 27(2): 150-60.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.