Vitamin D, Adiponectin, Oxidative Stress, Lipid Profile, and Nutrient Intakes in the Females with Acne Vulgaris: A Case-Control Study

  • Mahsa Moazen Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Zohreh Mazloom Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Farideh Jowkar Molecular Dermatology Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Nasrin Nasimi Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Zahra Moein Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Keywords: Acne Vulgaris, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Oxidative Stress, Lipids, Nutrition Assessment


Background: Acne vulgaris is a dermatological disorder that is related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Recent studies have also suggested diet as a potential reason for acne. Considering the inconsistency of the few previous reports, the present study aimed to determine the levels of vitamin D, adiponectin, oxidative stress, lipid profile and nutrient intakes in females with acne. Materials and Methods: Forty females with acne vulgaris and 40 age-matched healthy females were included in this study in Shiraz, Iran. Data on their sociodemographic status, acne history, and anthropometric indices were collected. Blood samples were taken to determine the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiponectin, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and lipid profile. Three 24-hour dietary recalls were also obtained from each of the individuals to evaluate nutrient intakes. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, Independent-samples t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test, and Logistic Regression. Results: Patients with acne had a significantly higher family history of acne compared to controls (P=0.006). Serum level of malondialdehyde was significantly higher in cases (P=0.01), while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower (P=0.02). Moreover, significantly lower fiber intake was observed in cases compared with controls (P=0.007). In the multivariate analysis, a family history of acne and increased malondialdehyde levels were risk factors for acne, whereas a higher fiber intake was protective. Conclusion: Family history of acne, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and lower dietary fiber intakes may play a role in acne pathogenesis. An early assessment of these parameters may be useful for planning treatment procedures. [GMJ.2019;8:e1515]


Williams HC, Dellavalle RP, Garner S. Acne vulgaris. Lancet. 2012;379(9813):361-72.

Knutsen-Larson S, Dawson AL, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP. Acne vulgaris: pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment. Dermatol Clin. 2012;30(1):99-106.


Gieler U, Gieler T, Kupfer JP. Acne and quality of life - impact and management. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015;29 Suppl 4:12-4.


Schwalfenberg GK. A review of the critical role of vitamin D in the functioning of the immune system and the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55(1):96-108.


Lim SK, Ha JM, Lee YH, Lee Y, Seo YJ, Kim CD, et al. Comparison of vitamin D levels in patients with and without acne: a case-control study combined with a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161162.

PMid:27560161 PMCid:PMC4999291

Cerman AA, Aktas E, Altunay IK, Arici JE, Tulunay A, Ozturk FY. Dietary glycemic factors, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels in acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75(1):155-62.


Nishizawa H, Shimomura I, Kishida K, Maeda N, Kuriyama H, Nagaretani H, et al. Androgens decrease plasma adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipocyte-derived protein. Diabetes. 2002;51(9):2734-41.


Toossi P, Azizian Z, Yavari H, Fakhim TH, Amini SH, Enamzade R. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients with acne vulgaris and its association with disease severity. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2015;12(3):238-42.

PMid:26811702 PMCid:PMC4708967

Ozuguz P, Kacar SD, Asik G, Ozuguz U, Karatas S. Evaluation of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2017;36(1):3-7.


Karadag AS, Ertugrul DT, Takci Z, Bilgili SG, Namuslu M, Ata N, et al. The effect of isotretinoin on retinol-binding protein 4, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in acne vulgaris patients. Dermatology. 2015;230(1):70-4.


Bowe WP, Logan AC. Clinical implications of lipid peroxidation in acne vulgaris: old wine in new bottles. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9(1):141.

PMid:21143923 PMCid:PMC3012032

Al-Shobaili HA, Alzolibani AA, Al Robaee AA, Meki AR, Rasheed Z. Biochemical markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress in acne vulgaris: correlation with disease activity. J Clin Lab Anal. 2013;27(1):45-52.


Awad SM, Morsy H, Sayed AA, Mohamed NA, Ezzat GM, Noaman MM. Oxidative stress and psychiatric morbidity in patients with facial acne. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018;17(2):203-8.


Al-Shobaili HA. Oxidants and anti-oxidants status in acne vulgaris patients with varying severity. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2014;44(2):202-7.

Arora MK, Seth S, Dayal S. The relationship of lipid profile and menstrual cycle with acne vulgaris. Clin Biochem. 2010;43(18):1415-20.


Balta I, Ekiz O, Ozuguz P, Ustun I, Karaca S, Dogruk Kacar S, et al. Insulin resistance in patients with post-adolescent acne. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54(6):662-6.


Katta R, Desai SP. Diet and dermatology: the role of dietary intervention in skin disease. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(7):46-51.

Ismail NH, Manaf ZA, Azizan NZ. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study. BMC Dermatol. 2012;12:13.

PMid:22898209 PMCid:PMC3470941

Siniavskii Iu A, Tsoi NO. Influence of nutritional patterns on the severity of acne in young adults. Vopr Pitan. 2014;83(1):41-7. (In Russian).

Ramli R, Malik AS, Hani AF, Jamil A. Acne analysis, grading and computational assessment methods: an overview. Skin Res Technol. 2012;18(1):1-14.


Mahan LK, Raymond JL: Krause's food & the nutrition care process. 14th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2016.

Blouin V, Bouchard I, Galibois I. Body mass index and food and nutrient intake of children with type 1 diabetes and a carbohydrate counting meal plan. Can J Diabetes. 2011;35(3):254-61.

Kramer C, Seltmann H, Seifert M, Tilgen W, Zouboulis CC, Reichrath J. Characterization of the vitamin D endocrine system in human sebocytes in vitro. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;113(1-2):9-16.


Faghih S, Abdolahzadeh M, Mohammadi M, Hasanzadeh J. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its related factors among university students in Shiraz, Iran. 2014;5(6):796-9.

Briganti S, Picardo M. Antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation and skin diseases. What's new. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003;17(6):663-9.


Younis S, Blumenberg M, Javed Q. Resistin gene polymorphisms are associated with acne and serum lipid levels, providing a potential nexus between lipid metabolism and inflammation. Arch Dermatol Res. 2016;308(4):229-37.


Smith RN, Mann NJ, Braue A, Makelainen H, Varigos GA. A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(1):107-15.


Tymchuk CN, Tessler SB, Barnard RJ. Changes in sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin, and serum lipids in postmenopausal women on a low-fat, high-fiber diet combined with exercise. Nutr Cancer. 2000;38(2):158-62.


Ghodsi SZ, Orawa H, Zouboulis CC. Prevalence, severity, and severity risk factors of acne in high school pupils: a community-based study. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129(9):2136-41.


Bataille V, Snieder H, MacGregor AJ, Sasieni P, Spector TD. The influence of genetics and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of acne: a twin study of acne in women. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119(6):1317-22.


Moradi Tuchayi S, Makrantonaki E, Ganceviciene R, Dessinioti C, Feldman SR, Zouboulis CC. Acne vulgaris. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015;1:15029.


Yang YC, Tu HP, Hong CH. Female gender and acne disease are jointly and independently associated with the risk of major depression and suicide: a national population-based study. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:504279.

PMid:24678508 PMCid:PMC3942337

How to Cite
Moazen, M., Mazloom, Z., Jowkar, F., Nasimi, N., & Moein, Z. (2019). Vitamin D, Adiponectin, Oxidative Stress, Lipid Profile, and Nutrient Intakes in the Females with Acne Vulgaris: A Case-Control Study. Galen Medical Journal, 8, e1515.
Original Article