Cover Image

Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire

Sepideh Batebi, Abbas Masjedi Arani, Mahdi Jafari, Amir Sadeghi, Mohsen Saberi Isfeedvajani, Mohammad Hassan Davazdah Emami

Background: It is essential in clinical care services to measure the symptoms of functional dyspepsia both in the primary examination and treatment outcomes. No valid assessment tool is already available for functional dyspepsia in Iran. The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Leeds dyspepsia questionnaire (LDQ). Materials and Methods: The LDQ was completed by 67 subjects with no dyspepsia symptoms and 93 subjects with certain functional dyspepsia diagnosed via endoscopy by a gastroenterologist and other clinical assessments. After definite diagnosis of functional dyspepsia, the participants were assessed by the LDQ. The psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire were then documented to investigate its reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Results: The internal consistency of the LDQ ranged from 0.80 to 0.89 and its test-retest reproducibility was 0.96. The LDQ was significantly correlated with all domains of dyspepsia symptom severity index (DSSI) and also with some of the domains of gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS). The LDQ had a sensitivity of 90.3% with a great specificity and a very good predictive validity. Moreover, a significant responsiveness to changes was observed (P<0.05). Conclusion: The LDQ is a valid, reliable, reproducible, and self-rated instrument responsive to change, which can be used to measure the frequency and severity of functional dyspepsia symptoms in clinical trials. [GMJ.2019;8:e1609] 

Dyspepsia; Surveys and Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results; Gastrointestinal Diseases; ROC Curve; Sensitivity and Specificity; Gastroesophageal Reflux

Moayyedi P, et al. The Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire: a valid tool for measuring the presence and severity of dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998;12(12): 1257-1262.


Rezaee tavirani M, et al. The Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Diseases in Patients with Dyspepsia who Referred to Gastrointestinal Clinics in Ilam during the Years 2010-2011. SJIMU. 2015; 22(7): 32-38.

Henke CJ, Levin TR, Henning JM, Potter LP. Work loss costs due to peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease in a health maintenance organization. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95(3): 788-792.


Faramarzi M, Azadfallah P, Book HE, Rasolzadeh Tabatabai K, Taherim H, Kashifard M. The effect of psychotherapy in improving physical and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. Iran J Psychiatry. 2015; 10(1): 43-49.

Faghihi Kashani AH, Kabir A, Basi A. Comparison of Frequency of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Subgroup of Patients with Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia. RJMS. 2003; 9(31): 557-566.

Allescher H, Functional dyspepsia-a multicausal disease and its therapy. Phymed. 2006; 13: 2-11.


Zargar Y, Dehghanizadeh Z, MehrabizadehHonarmand M, Kadkhodaei A. The effectiveness of stress management cognitive behavior on functional dyspepsia symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia. Govaresh. 2012; 17(3): 148-155.

Lee HJ, et al. Depressive mood and quality of life in functional gastrointestinal disorders: differences between functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and overlap syndrome. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010; 32(5): 499-502.


Brook RA, Kleinman NL, Choung RS, Melkonian AK, Smeeding JE, Talley NJ. Functional dyspepsia impacts absenteeism and direct and indirect costs. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 8(6): 498-503.


Sheikhian MR, Meysami Bonab S, Jarahi L, Eshghi S. Validity and Reliability of Persian Translation of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index in Functional Dyspepsia in Iran. Govaresh. 2016; 21(4): 238-243.

Talley NJ, Verlinden M, Jones M, Quality of life in functional dyspepsia: responsiveness of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index and development of a new 10-item short form. Aliment PharmTher. 2001; 15(2): 207-216.


Moayyedi P, Mason J, Clinical and economic consequences of dyspepsia in the community. Gut. 2002; 50(4): 410-412.

PMid:11953338 PMCid:PMC1867687

Fraser A, Delaney BC, Ford AC, Qume M, Moayyedi P. The short-form leeds dyspepsia questionnaire validation study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007; 25(4): 477-486.


Schmulson MJ, Drossman DA. What is new in Rome IV. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017; 23(2): 151-163.

PMid:28274109 PMCid:PMC5383110

Mahadeva S, Chan WK, Mohazmi M, Sujarita R, Goh KL. Validation study of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 26(11): 1669-1676.


Chiba N, Veldhuyzen van Zanten SJO, Sinclair P, Ferguson RA, Escobedo S, Grace E. Treating Helicobacter pylori infection in primary care patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia: the Canadian adult dyspepsia empiric treatment Helicobacter pylori positive (CADET-Hp) randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2002; 324(7344): 1012-1019.

PMid:11976244 PMCid:PMC102778

Heading RC. Definitions of dyspepsia. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26(182): 1-6.


Kuykendall DH, Rabeneck L, Campbell CJM, Wray NP. Dyspepsia: how should we measure it? J Clin Epidemiol. 1998; 51(2): 99-106.

Leidy NK, Farup C, Rentz AM, Ganoczy D, Koch KL. Patient-Based Assessment in Dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci. 2000; 45(6): 1172-1179.


Revicki DA, Wood M, Wiklund I, Crawley J. Reliability and validity of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Qual Life Res. 1997; 7(1): 75-83.


Mazaheri M, SadatKhoshouei M. Comparison between Psychometric Characteristics of Persian Version of the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Normal Groups. Govaresh. 2012; 17(1): 18-24.


Kulich KR, et al. Reliability and validity of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire in dyspepsia: a six-country study. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008; 6(1): 12-24.

PMid:18237386 PMCid:PMC2276197

HU WH, et al. The Hong Kong index of dyspepsia: a validated symptom severity questionnaire for patients with dyspepsia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002; 17(5): 545-551.



  • There are currently no refbacks.