COVID-19 Cardiac Manifestations and Scent Perception Genes in Hearts of SARS-Cov-2 Infected Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Data

  • Davoud Roostaei 1. Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran
  • Mojtaba Sohrabpour 2. Head and Neck Surgery, Fasa University of Medical Science, Fasa, Iran
  • Mohammad Sadegh Sanie Jahromi 3. Critical Care and Pain Management Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
  • Majid Vatankhah 4. Intensive Care Fellowship, Anesthesiology & Critical Care and Pain Management Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
  • Aghdas Shadmehr 5. Jahrom University of Medical Science, Jahrom, Iran
  • Mohsen Ebrahimi 6. Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  • Vahid Mogharab 7. Department of Pediatrics, Jahrom University of Medical Science, Jahrom, Iran
  • Naser Hatami 8. Student Research Committee, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
  • Neema John Mehramiz 9. Department of Psychiatry Neurology. Banner University Medical Center, Tucson, AZ, USA
  • Mahdi Foroughian 6. Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  • Arman Hakemi
  • Navid Kalani 10. Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-Cov-2, Cardiac, Myocardial Infarction, Heart

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 induced cardiac events are reported by a large number of papers; while psychophysiology of association of the COVID-19 and cardiac attacks are not fully understood yet. Materials and Methods: Here we compared gene expression levels of heart autopsies of SARS-Cov-2 infected patients with the cardiac organoid model of human myocardial infarction and control healthy cardiac organoids to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes were enriched in DEGs. Results: Results showed that smell perception genes were down-regulated in SARS-COV2 in comparison to myocardial infarction samples; while showing upregulated genes related to the immune system process in comparison to control healthy heart organoids. Our results are in agreement with theories of immune system reactions in COVID-19 infected patients’ hearts; while our analysis indicates different patterns of heart genes expression from myocardial infarction models. Conclusion: our study suggests that there may be different pathways involved in MI appearance in COVID-19 patients rather than classic known atherosclerotic and inflammatory pathways.

References

Driggin E, Madhavan MV, Bikdeli B, Chuich T, Laracy J, Biondi-Zoccai G, et al. Cardiovascular considerations for patients, health care workers, and health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75(18):2352-71.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.031

PMid:32201335 PMCid:PMC7198856

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1054-62.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3

Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, Wu X, Zhang L, He T, et al. Cardiovascular implications of fatal outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(7):811-8.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017

PMid:32219356 PMCid:PMC7101506

Kwong JC, Schwartz KL, Campitelli MA, Chung H, Crowcroft NS, Karnauchow T, et al. Acute myocardial infarction after laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(4):345-53.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1702090

PMid:29365305

Love MI, Huber W, Anders S. Moderated estimation of fold change and dispersion for RNA-seq data with DESeq2. Genome Biol. 2014;15(12):550.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-014-0550-8

PMid:25516281 PMCid:PMC4302049

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study [published correction appears in Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1038.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Wang B, Xiang H, Cheng Z, Xiong Y, Zhao Y. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1061-9.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1585

PMid:32031570 PMCid:PMC7042881

Imazio M, Klingel K, Kindermann I, Brucato A, De Rosa FG, Adler Y, De Ferrari GM. COVID-19 pandemic and troponin: indirect myocardial injury, myocardial inflammation or myocarditis?. Heart 2020;106:1127-31.

https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317186

PMid:32499236

Oudit GY, Kassiri Z, Jiang C, Liu PP, Poutanen SM, Penninger JM, et al. SARS‐coronavirus modulation of myocardial ACE2 expression and inflammation in patients with SARS. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39(7):618-25.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02153.x

PMid:19453650 PMCid:PMC7163766

Desai N, Neyaz A, Szabolcs A, Shih AR, Chen JH, Thapar V, et al. Temporal and Spatial Heterogeneity of Host Response to SARS-CoV-2 Pulmonary Infection. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):6319.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20139-7

PMid:33298930 PMCid:PMC7725958

Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X, et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci China Life Sci. 2020;63(3):457-60.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5

PMid:32009228 PMCid:PMC7089049

Drutel G, Arrang JM, Diaz J, Wisnewsky C, Schwartz K, Schwartz JC. Cloning of OL1, a putative olfactory receptor and its expression in the developing rat heart. Recept Channels. 1995;3(1):33-40.

Mehraeen E, Behnezhad F, Salehi MA, Noori T, Harandi H, SeyedAlinaghi S. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a review of current evidence. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2021;278(2):307-12.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06120-6

PMid:32556781 PMCid:PMC7297932

Parsa S, Mogharab V, Ebrahimi M, Ahmadi SR, Shahi B, Mehramiz NJ, et al. COVID-19 as a worldwide selective event and bitter taste receptor polymorphisms: An ecological correlational study. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021;177:204-10.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.070

PMid:33582215 PMCid:PMC8043766

Islam AB, Khan MA. Lung transcriptome of a COVID-19 patient and systems biology predictions suggest impaired surfactant production which may be druggable by surfactant therapy. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):1-6.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76404-8

PMid:33173052 PMCid:PMC7656460

Gutierrez JA, Parry AJ, McMullan DM, Fineman JR. Increased pulmonary blood flow decreases surfactant protein a in a lamb model of congenital heart disease. Pediatric Research. 1999;45(7):352.

https://doi.org/10.1203/00006450-199904020-02090

De Pasquale CG. Surfactant protein-B in chronic heart failure: an insight to the alveolocapillary barrier. Rev Esp Cardiol . 2009;62(2):117-9.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-8932(09)70152-6

Gargiulo P, Banfi C, Ghilardi S, Magri D, Giovannardi M, Bonomi A, et al. Surfactant-derived proteins as markers of alveolar membrane damage in heart failure. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115030.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115030

PMid:25514679 PMCid:PMC4267772

Gadwal A, Roy D, Khokhar M, Modi A, Sharma P, Purohit P. CRISPR/Cas-New Molecular Scissors in Diagnostics and Therapeutics of COVID-19. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2021;36(4):1-9.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-021-00977-y

PMid:33879980 PMCid:PMC8050156

Daamen AR, Bachali P, Owen KA, Kingsmore KM, Hubbard EL, Labonte AC, et al. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of COVID-19 blood, lung, and airway. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):7052.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86002-x

PMid:33782412 PMCid:PMC8007747

Shaath H, Vishnubalaji R, Elkord E, Alajez NM. Single-cell transcriptome analysis highlights a role for neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Cells. 2020;9(11):2374.

https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112374

PMid:33138195 PMCid:PMC7693119

Published
2021-12-30
How to Cite
Roostaei, D., Sohrabpour, M., Sanie Jahromi, M. S., Vatankhah, M., Shadmehr, A., Ebrahimi, M., Mogharab, V., Hatami, N., John Mehramiz, N., Foroughian, M., Hakemi, A., & Kalani, N. (2021). COVID-19 Cardiac Manifestations and Scent Perception Genes in Hearts of SARS-Cov-2 Infected Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Data. Galen Medical Journal, 10, e2250. https://doi.org/10.31661/gmj.v10i0.2250
Section
Short Communication