How to Prepare Biological Samples and Live Tissues for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  • Abolfazl Mehdizadeh Kashi Minimally Invasive Surgery, Endometriosis Research Center, Hazrat-e Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Science (IUMS), Tehran, IR-Iran
  • Kobra Tahemanesh Minimally Invasive Surgery, Endometriosis Research Center, Hazrat-e Rasool-e Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Science (IUMS), Tehran, IR-Iran.
  • Shahla Chaichian MIT Research Center of TMSB, IAU, Minimally Invasive Surgery, Endometriosis Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Taghi Joghataei Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.
  • Fateme Moradi Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.
  • Seyed Mohammad Tavangar Department of Pathology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS),Tehran, IR-Iran
  • Ashraf Sadat Mousavi Najafabadi Minimally Invasive Surgery, Endometriosis Research Center, Rasool-e Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Science (IUMS), Tehran, IR-Iran.
  • Nasrin Lotfibakhshaiesh School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, IR-Iran.
  • Shahram Pour Beyranvand Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, IR-Iran
  • Abbas Fazel Anvari-Yazdi Division of Biomedical Engineering, Materials and Biomaterials Research Center (MBMRC), Tehran, IR-Iran.
  • Seyedeh Mehr Abed School of Medical Science, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, Iran.
Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Biological Samples, Live Tissues, Sample Preparation


In this article we review the application and procedures involved in scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe biological and live tissues through using SEM at high resolution. We discuss practical methods for optimizing tissue preservation to achieve the two principal goals of biological specimen preparation: (a) preserving biological structures as close to their living configuration as possible, and (b) rendering them visible with the desired imaging method. We also review and discuss the relative merits of different fixing (chemical fixation and cryofixation), drying (air-drying, critical point-drying, freeze-drying and chemical-drying) and coating procedures of biological specimens with metals to facilitate visualization in the SEM.


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How to Cite
Mehdizadeh Kashi, A., Tahemanesh, K., Chaichian, S., Joghataei, M. T., Moradi, F., Tavangar, S. M., Mousavi Najafabadi, A. S., Lotfibakhshaiesh, N., Pour Beyranvand, S., Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, A., & Abed, S. M. (2014). How to Prepare Biological Samples and Live Tissues for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Galen Medical Journal, 3(2), 63-80.
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