Introduction of HER-2 and a Short Review on Its Role in Prognosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer

  • Seyed Abbas Mirmalek Department of Surgery, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran
  • Fatemeh Elhamkani Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shariati Hospital, Tehran
  • Seyed Alireza Salimi Tabatabaee Students' Research Committee, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran
  • Hossein Mahmoodzadeh Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shariati Hospital, Tehran
  • Yekta Parsa Students' Research Committee, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran
  • Soheila Yadollah-Damavandi Students' Research Committee, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran
  • Ehsan Jangholi Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran
Keywords: Breast Cancer, Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor-2, Prognosis, HER-2, Review


Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor-2 (HER-2) as a new prognostic and predictive factor has been believed as an essential measurement in breast carcinoma. About 280 articles were reviewed and 115 were referred in this review article on HER-2. HER-2 is an oncoprotein epidermal growth factor receptor produced by a so-called cell surface oncogene. Overexpression results in aggressive behavior, early metastasis to lymph nodes and distant areas, and poor prognosis in breast cancer. HER-2 seems to be a prognostic and predictive factor and must be considered in all breast cancer cases.


Vander Geer P, Hunter T, Lindberg RA. Receptor protein-tyrosin kinase and transduction pathway. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1994;10:251-337.

Pinkas-Kramaski R, Alory I, Yarden Y. Erb B receptor and EGF-like ligands: cell lineage determination and oncogenesis through Combinatorial Signaling. J Mamm Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1997;2(2):97-107.

Eccles SA. The Role of c - erbB2/Her-2/ neu in breast cancer progression and metastasis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2001;6(4):393-406.

Blume-Jensen P, Hunter T. oncogenetic kinase signaling. Nature. 2001;411(6835):355-65.

Coussens L, Yang-Feng TL, Liao YC, Chen E, Gray A, McGrath J, et al. Tyrosine kinase receptor with extensive homology to EGF receptor shares chromosomal location with neu oncogene. Science. 1985;230(4730):1132-9.

King CR, Kraus MH, Auroson SA. Amplification of a novel c - erb - B2 related gene in human mammary carcinoma. Science. 1995;229:974-6.

Reese DM, Salmon DJ. HER-2/neu signal transduction in human breast and ovarian cancer. Stem cells. 1997;15(1):1-8.

Carraway K, Cantley L. A new acquaintance for erbB3 and erbB4: a role for receptor heterodimerization in growth signaling. Cell. 1996;78(1):5-8.

Sliwkowski MX, Schaefer G, Akita RW, Lofgren JA, Fitzpatrick VD, Nuijens A, et al. Coexpression of erbB2 and erbB3 protein reconstitutes a high affinity receptor for heregulin. J Biol chem. 1998; 269(20):14661-5.

Plowman GD, Culouscou JM, Whitney GS, Green JM, Carlton GW, Foy L, et al. Ligand - Specific activatinn of HER4/P185 erbB4, a fourth member of epidermal growth factor receptor family. Proc NatI Acad Sci USA. 1993;90(5):1746-50.

Burstein HJ, Lieberman G, Slamon DJ, Winer EP, Klein P. Isolated central nervous system metastases in patients with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer treated with first-line trastuzumab-based therapy. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(11):1772-7.

Zhou BP, Hung MC. Dysregulation of cellular signaling by HER-2/neu in breast cancer. Semi oncol. 2003;30(16):38-48.

Bilous M, Ades C, Armes J, Bishop J, Brown R, Cooke B, et al. Predicting the HER2 status of breast cancer from basic histopathology data. Breast. 2003;12(2):92-8.

Henahan S. HER-2/neu vs Breast cancer. National health musemn. 2002;1(1).

Latta EK, Tjan S, Parkes RK, O'Malley FP. The Role of HER2/neu over expression I amplification in the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma of the breast cancer. Mod Pathol. 2002; 15(12):1318-25.

DiGiovanna MP, Chu P, Davison TL, Howe CL, Carter D, Claus EB, et al. Active signaling by HER2/neu in a Subpopulation of HER-2 over expressing ductal Carcinoma insitu clinicopathological Correlates. Cancer Res. 2002; 62(22):6667-73.

Gullick WJ. A new model for ductal carcinoma insitu suggests strategies for treatment. Breast Cancer Res. 2002;4(5):176-8.

Rodrigues NA, Dillon D, Carter D, Parisot N, Haffty BG. Differences in the pathologic and molecular features of in tra ductal breast carcinoma between younger and older women. Cancer. 2003;97(6):1393-403.

Mirmalek S, sadat Yarandi N, Shadpour MT, Saatian M, Raeesi H, Rangraz EJ, et al. Evaluation of Morphological Changes in Breast Cancer: Influence of Fractal Meta-Analysis. Galen Medical Journal. 2014;3(2):130-1.

Yang JQ, Chen L, Xing TY. Relationship of oncogene C-erbB2 expression to ER, PR and PS2 in breast cancer and its prognostic significance. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2004;35(3):334-6,357.

Mai GF, Zheng H, Luo RC, Liao WJ, Zhang LS, He XB. Association of progesterone receptor and HER-2 expressions with the survival time of patient with breast cancer. Di Yi Jun 2003 Apr; 23(4): 372-4.

Gancberg D, Di Leo A, Cardoso F, Rouas G, Pedrocchi M, Paesmans M, et al. Comparison of HER-2 status between primary breast cancer and corresponding distant metastatic site. Ann Oncol. 2002;13(7):1036-43.

Chen HH, Su WC, Guo HR, Chang TW, Lee WY. P53 and C-erbB2 but not bcl-2 are predictive of metastatic-free survival in breast cancer patients receiving past - mastectomy adjuvant raidio therapy in Taiwan. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2002;32(9):332-9.

Korkolis DP, Tsoli E, Fouskakis D, Yiotis J, Koullias GJ, Giannopoulos D, et al. Tumor histology and stage but not p53, HER2 / neu or cathepsin D expression and independent prognostic factors in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2004;24(310):2061- 8.

Zemzoum I, Kates RE, Ross JS, Dettmar P, Dutta M, Henrichs C, et al. Invasion factor uPA/PAI-1 and HER-2 status provide independent and complementary information on patient outcome in node - negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(6):1022-8.

Rasul KI, Mohammaed K, Abdalla AS, Chong-Lopez A, Ahmad MA, Al-Homsi MU, et al. study of HER-2/neu status in Gatari women with breast Carcinoma. Saudi Med J. 2003;24(8):832-6.

Dandachi N, Dietze O, Hauser-Kronberger C. Evaluation of the clinical significance of Her-2 amplification by chromogenic in situ bybridisation in patients with primary breast cancer. Anti Cancer Res. 2004;24(4):2401-6.

Carney WP, Neumann R, Lipton A, Leitzel K, Ali S, Price CP.. Monitoring the circulating levels of the HER-2/neu Onco protein in Breast Cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2004;5(2):105-16.

López-Guerrero JA, Navarro S, Noguera R, Almenar S, Pellin A, Vázquez C, et al. Histological tumor grade Correlate with Her-2 status in invasive breast cancer. Arkh patol. 2003;65(1):50-5.

Kumar-Sinha C, Ignatoski KW, Lippman ME, Ethier SP, Chinnaiyan AM. Transcription analysis ofHER-2 reveals a molecular connection to fatty Acid synthesis. Cancer Res. 2003;63(1):132-9.

Hayes DF, Walker TM, Singh B, Vitetta ES, Uhr JW, Gross S, et al. Monitoring expression of HER-2 on circulating epithelial cells in patients with advanced breast cancer. Int J Oncol. 2002;21(5):1111-7.

Horiguchi J, Iino Y, Takei H, Maemura M, Takeyoshi I, Yokoe T, et al. C-erbB2 status is an independent predictor of survival after first recurrence. Int J Oncol. 1998;12(1):123-8.

Bohn U, Aguiar J, Bilbao C, Murias A, Vega V, Chirino R, et al. Prognostic Value ofthe quantitative measurement ofthe onco protein P185 (HER2/neu) in a group of patients with breast cancer and positive node involvement. Int J Cancer. 2002;101(6):539-44.

Nabholtz JM. HER-2 positive breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2002;3(2):75-9.

Fehm T, Jäger W, Krämer S, Sohn C, Solomayer E, Wallwiener D, et al. Prognostic significance of serum HER2 and CA 15-3 at the time of diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2004;24(310):1987-92.

Esteva FJ, Sahin AA, Cristofanilli M, Arun B, Hortobagyi GN. Molecular prognostic factors for breast cancer metastasis and survival. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2002;12(4):319-28.

Andrulis IL, Bull SB, Blackstein ME, Sutherland D, Mak C, Sidlofsky S, et al. Neu/erbB2 amplif"lcation identifies a poor-prognosis group pf women with node¬negative breast cancer: T oranto Breast Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol.


Szollosi Z, Egervari K, Nemes Z, Kaczur V. Simultaneus detection of HER2/neu gene amplification and protein over expressing in paraffin embedded breast cancer. J pathol. 2005;207(1):119-20.

Taucher S, Rudas M, Mader RM, Gnant M, Dubsky P, Roka S, et al. Prognostic markers in breast cancer the reliably of HER-2/neu status in core needle biopsy of 325 patients with primary breast cancer. Wien klin wochenschr 2004;116(1):26-31.

Slamon DJ, Godolphin W, Jones LA, Holt JA, Wong SG, Keith DE, et al. Studies of HER2/neu Proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian Cancer. Science. 1990;244(4905):707-12.

Pauletti G, Godolphin W, Press MF, Slamon DJ. Detection and Quantization of HER-2/neu gene amplification in human breast cancer archival material using FISH. Oncogene. 1996;13(1):63-72.

Pauletti G, Dandekar S, Rong H, Ramos L, Peng H, Seshadri R, et al. Assessment of methods for tissue-based detection of the HER-2/neu alternation in human breast cancer: a direct comparison of FISH and mc. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(21):3651-64.

Camp RL, Dolled-Filhart M, King BL, Rimm DL. Quantitative analysis of breast cancer tissue micro arrays shows that both high and normal levels of HER2 over expression are associated with poor outcome. Cancer Res. 2003;63(7):1445-8.

Hirschmann A, Lamb TA, Marchal G, Padilla M, Diebold J. Simultaneous analysis of HER2 gene and protein on a single slide facilitates HER2 testing of breast and gastric carcinomas. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138(6):837-44

Hatanaka Y, Hashizume K, Kamihara Y, Itoh H, Tsuda H, Osamura RY, et al. Quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of HER-2/neu expression with Hercept Test in breast carcinoma by image analysis. Pathol Int. 2001;51(1):33-6.

Horiguchi J, Koibuchi Y, Iijima K, Yoshida T, Yoshida M, Takata D, et al. Immunohistochemical double staining with Estrogen receptor and HER2 on primary breast cancer. Int J Mol Med. 2003;12(6):855-9.

Mirmalek S.A, Tirgary F, Alizadeh HR. Study and comparison between malignant breast tumors and related surounding benign tissue about HER-2 Receptor Persistence. Iranian J surgery. 2005;13(34):48-54.[In Persian]

Schwartz MK, Smith C, Schwartz DC, Dnistrian A, Neiman I. Monitoring therapy by serum HER2/neu. Int J BioI Makers. 2000;15(4):324¬-9.

Streckfus C, Bigler L, Dellinger T, Dai X, Kingman A, Thigpen JT. The Presence of Soluble c-erbB2 in saliva and serum of women with breast carcinoma: a preliminary study. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6(6):2363-70.

Fehm T, Gebauer G, Jäger W.. clinical utility of serial serum C-erbB2 determinations in the follow up of breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002;75(2):97-106.

Chearskul S, Sinlarat P, Bhothisuwan K, Churintrapun M, Ornrhebroi S, Klinsala N, et al. Serum c - erbB2 protein in breast cancer patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2000;83(3):886-93.

Meenakshi A, Kumar RS, Ganesh V, Kumar NS. Preliminary study on raidioimmunodiagnosis of experimental tumor models using technetium - 99m - labeled anti - C - erbB2 monoclonal anti body. Tumori. 2002;88(6):507-12.

Lipton A, Ali SM, Leitzel K, Demers L, Chinchilli V, Engle L, et al. Elevated Sorum Her2/neu levels predicts decreased response to hormone therapy in metastatic Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(6):1467-72.

Leitzel K, Teramoto Y, Konrad K, Chinchilli VM, Volas G, Grossberg H, et al. Elevated Serum c - erbB2 antigen levels and decreased response to hormone therapy of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13(5):1129-35.

Stearns V, Yamauchi H, Hayes DF. Circulating tumor markers in breast cancer: accepted utilities and novel prospects. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1998;52(1-3):239-59.

Siziopikou KP, Khan S. Correlation of HER-2 gene amplification with expression of apoptosis- suppressing gene bcl-2 and bcl-x-L in ductal carcinoma in situ of breast. APPI Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005;13(1):14-8.

Barnes DM, Millis RR. Estrogen receptors : the history, the relevance and methods of evaluation. Prog Pathol. 1995:89-94.

Hahrel R, Woodings T, Vivian AB. Prognostic Value of estrogen receptors in primary breast Cancer. Cancer. 1979;44(2):671-5.

Yamauchi H, O'Neill A, Gelman R, Carney W, Tenney DY, Hösch S, et al. Prediction of response to antiestrogen therapy in advanced breast cancer patients by pretreatment circulating levels of extra cellular domain of the HER2/neu protein. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15(7):2518-25.

Knowlden JM, Hutcheson IR, Jones HE, Madden T, Gee JM, Harper ME, et al. Elevated levels of epidermal growth factor receptor / C-erbB2 heterodimers mediate an autocrine growth regulatory path way in tamoxifen - resistant MCF-7 cells. Endocrinology. 2003;144(3):1032-44.

Witters L1, Engle L, Lipton A. Restoration of estrogen responsiveness by blocking the HER-2Ineu pathway. Oncol Rep. 2002;9(6):1163-6.

Allred DC, Harvey JM, Berardo M, Clark GM. Prognostic and Predictive factors in breast cancer by immunohistochemical analysis. Mod Pathol. 1998;11(2):155-68.

Clark GM, McGuire WL. Steroid receptors and other prognostic factors in primary breast cancer. Semin oncol. 1988;15(2 Suppl 1):20-5.

Moriki T, Takahashi T, Ueta S, Mitani M, Ichien M. Hormone receptor status and HER-2/nen over expression determined by automated immunostainer on routinely fixed cytology specimens from breast cancer. Diagn Cytopathol. 2004;30(4):251-6.

Balsari A, Casalini P, Bufalino R, Berrino F, Ménard S.. Role of hormonal risk factors in HER-2 positive breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2003 88(7):1032-4.

Konecny G, Pauletti G, Pegram M, Untch M, Dandekar S, Aguilar Z, et al. Quantitative association between

HER-2/neu and steroid hormone receptors in hormone receptor positive in primary breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(2):142-53.

Davidoff AM1, Herndon JE 2nd, Glover NS, Kerns BJ, Pence JC, Iglehart JD, et al. Relation between P53 over express and established prognostic factors in breast cancer. Surgery. 1991;110(2):259-64.

Elledge RM, Fuqua SA, Clark GM, Pujol P, Allred DC. Williams L McGuire Memorial Symposium: the role and prognostic significance ofP53 gene alternations in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1993;27(1-2):95-102.

Marks JR, Humphrey PA, Wu K, Berry D, Bandarenko N, Kerns BJ, et al. Over expression of P53 and HER-2/neu proteins as prognostic markers in early stage breast cancer. Ann Surg. 1994;219(4):332-41.

Yamashita H, Nishio M, Toyama T, Sugiura H, Zhang Z, et al. Coexistence ofHER-2 over expression and P53 protein accumulation is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6(1):R24-30.

Tsutsui S, Ohno S, Murakami S, Kataoka A, Kinoshita J, Hachitanda Y. Prognostic significance of the co expression of p53 protein and C-erbB2 in breast cancer. Am J Surg. 2003;185(2):165-7.

Dep.Her CR. The new - oncogene: More than a prognostic indicator? Hum Pathol. 1994;25(12):1264-268.

Wilbur DC, Barrows GH. Estrogen and Progesterone receptor and G - erbB2 oncoprotein analysis in pure in situ breast carcinoma: an mc study. Mod Pathol. l994;6(2):114-20.

Garne JP, Aspegren K, Linell F, Rank F, Ranstam J. Primary Prognostic Factor in invasive breast cancer with special references to ductal carcinoma and histologic malignancy grade. Cancer. 1994;73(5):1438-48.

Elston CW. Grading of invasive Carcinoma of the breast. In page DL, Andersoll Tl, editors: Diagnostic histopathology of the breast. New York; Churchill Livingstone. 1990. pp 300-311.

Seimi T. Histologic grades of breast cancer. Helping determine a patient s' outcome. Breast Cancer Diagnosis, 2002 Jul l0 [cited 2002 Dec 20]. Available from: [http://www.imaginis.oom].

Henson DE, Ries L, Freedman LS, Carriagom M. Relationship among outcome, stage of disease, and histologic grade for 22/616 cases of breast cancer. Cancer. 1991;68(10):2142-9.

Fisher ER, Costantino J, Fisher B, Redmond C. Pathologic findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project. Cancer. 1992;71 (6 Suppl):2141-50.

Eppenberger-Castori S1, Moore DH Jr, Thor AD, Edgerton SM, Kueng W, Eppenberger U, et al. Age - associated biomarker profiles of human breast cancer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34(11):1318-30.

Levine MN, Browman GP, Gent M, Roberts R, Goodyear M. When is a prognostic factor useful? J Clin oncol. 1991;9(2):348-56.

Toikkanen S, Helin H, Isola J, Joensuu H. Prognostic significance of Her-2 oncoprotein expression in breast cancer: a 30 year follow up. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(7):1044-8.

Johnson H Jr, Masood S, Belluco C, Abou-Azama AM, Dee S, Kahn L, et al. Prognostic Factors in node - negative breast cancer. Arch Surg. 1992;127(12):1386-91.

Volpi A, Nanni O, De Paola F, Granato AM, Mangia A, Monti F, etal. HER - 2 expression and cell proliferation: Prognostic markers in patients with node¬negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(14):2708-12.

Di Giovanna MP. Clinical Significance ofHER2/neu over expression: part II, PPO update 1999; 13 (10): 1-14.

Tsutsui S, Ohno S, Murakami S, Kataoka A, Kinoshita J, Hachitanda Y. Prognostic value of the combination of epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB2 in breast cancer. Surgery. 2003; 133(2): 219-21.

Bast RC Jr, Ravdin P, Hayes DF, Bates S, Fritsche H Jr, Jessup JM, et al. 2000 update of recommendations for the use of tumor maker in breast and colorectal cancer: Clinical practice quid lines of the American Society of Clinical oncology. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(6):1865-78.

Kronqvist P, Kuopio T, Nykänen M, Helenius H, Anttinen J, Klemi P. Predicting aggressive outcome in TINOMO breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;91(2):277-81.

Guarneri V, Bengala C, Orlandini C, Gennari A, Donati S, Campani D, et al. Her-2 over expression as prognostic factor in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with high dose chemo therapy and autolngous stem cell support. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;34(5):413-7.

Tagliabue E, Agresti R, Carcangiu ML, Ghirelli C, Morelli D, Campiglio M, et al. Role of HER-2 in wound- induced breast Carcinoma proliferation. Lancet. 2003;362(9383):527-33.

Ring AE, Ellis PA. Predictors of response to systemic therapy in breast cancer. Forum (Genova). 2002;12(1):19-32.

Jordan Vc. Tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer: Concept to gold standard. Oncology (Williston Park). 1997 Feb;11(2 Suppl 1):7-13.

Dancey J, Sausville EA. Issues and progress with protein kinase inhibiton for cancer treatment. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2003;2(4):296-313.

Stemmler HJ, Stieber P, Lässig D, Heinemann V. Re-Evaluation of HER2 status in Metastatic Breast Cancer and Tumor- Marker Guided Therapy with Vinorelbine and Trastuzumab. Onkologie. 2005;28(2):95-7.

Zhang DY, Li Y, Rizvi SM, Qu C, Kearsley J, Allen BJ. Cytotixicity of breast cancer cells over expression HER2/neu by 213 Bi- Herceptin radio immunoconjugate. Cancer lett. 2005; 218(2):181-90.

Spiridon CI, Ghetie MA, Uhr J, Marches R, Li JL, Shen GL, et al. Targeting multiple Her-2 epitope with mono clonal anti bodies re1iult in improved antigrowth activity of human breast cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(6):1720-30.

Camirand A, Lu Y, Pollak M. Co-targeting HER2/neu and insulin -like growth factor - 1 receptors Causes synergistic inhibition of growth in HER2 - over expressing breast cancer cells. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8(12):BR521-6.

Harold J. HER2 over expression Breast Cancer and TranJituzumab. J Hematol ¬Onchol. 2004;7(2).

Varga Z1, Caduff R, Pestalozzi B. Stability of the HER2 gene after primary chemo therapy in advanced breast cancer. Virchows Arch. 2005;446(2):136-41.

Ross JS, Schenkein DP, Pietrusko R, Rolfe M, Linette GP, Stec J, et al. Targeted Therapies for cancer 2004. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(4):598-609.

Toi M, Takada M, Bando H, Toyama K, Yamashiro H, Horiguchi S, et al. Current Status of antibody therapy for breast cancer. Breast Cancer. 2004;11(1):10-4.

Gulhck WI. Update on HER-2 as a target for cancer therapy. Breast Cancer Res. 2001(6):390¬-4.

Bell R. What can we learn from Herceptin trials in metastatic breast cancer. Oncology. 2002;63(1):39 -46.

Jahanzeb M, Mortimer JE, Yunus F, Irwin DH, Speyer J, Koletsky AJ, et al. Phase II trial of weekly Vinorelbin and Trastuzumab as first line therapy in patients with HER2(+) metastatic breast cancer. Oncology. 2002;7(5):407-10.

Moliterni A, Ménard S, Valagussa P, Biganzoli E, Boracchi P, Balsari A, et al. HER2 over expression and doxornbicin in adjuvant chemotherapy for respectable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(3):458-62.

Gusterson BA. Prognostic importance of c - erB2 expression in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998;10:1049-56.

Zhu L, Chow LW, Loo WT, Guan XY, Toi M. Her-2 Expression predicts the Response to Antiaromatase Neoadjuvant Therapy in Primary Breast Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(14): 4639-44.

Cocquyt VF, Schelfhout VR, Blondeel PN, Depypere HT, Daems KK, Serreyn RF, et al. The role of biological makers as predictors of response to preoperative Chemo therapy in large primary breast cancer. Med Oncol. 2003;20(3):221-31.

Christodoulou C, Klouvas G, Pateli A, Mellou S, Sgouros J, Skarlos DV. Prolonged administration of weekly paditaxel and Trastozumab inpatients with advanced breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2003;23(1):737-44.

Fornier MN1, Seidman AD, Schwartz MK, Ghani F, Thiel R, Norton L, et al. Serum Her2 extra cellular domain in Metastatic breast cancer patient with weekly Transtuzumab and paclitaxel. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(2):234-9.

Stefano R, Agostara B, Calabrò M, Campisi I, Ravazzolo B, Traina A, et al. Expression levels and Metastatic Human Breast Cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1028:463-72.

Lear-Kaul KC1, Yoon HR, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, McGavran L, Singh M. Her-2 status in breast cancer metastases to the central nervous system. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127(11):1451-7.

Carlsson J, Nordgren H, Sjöström J, Wester K, Villman K, Bengtsson NO, et al. Her-2 expression in breast cancer primary tumors and Corresponding metastases. Br J Cancer. 2004;90(12):2344-8.

Pietras R. New Radiation Therapy for HER-2 Overexpressing Braest Cancer. Vysis 2002 [cited 2002Dec 12]; 1(1). Available from: [].

Pegram MD, Salmon D. Biologic rationale for HER-2/neu as a target for mono clonal antibody therapy. Semin Oncol. 2000;27(5 Supp 9):13-19.

Pegram MD. Phase 11 Study of receptor - enhanced chemosensitivity using recombinant humanized anti p185 HER2 Ineu monoclonal antibody plus cisplatin patients with HER-2/neu - over expressing metastatic breast cancer refractory to chemo therapy treatment. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16(8):2659-71.

How to Cite
Mirmalek, S. A., Elhamkani, F., Salimi Tabatabaee, S. A., Mahmoodzadeh, H., Parsa, Y., Yadollah-Damavandi, S., & Jangholi, E. (2014). Introduction of HER-2 and a Short Review on Its Role in Prognosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer. Galen Medical Journal, 3(3), 132-44. Retrieved from
Review Article