Cover Image

Intracranial Stenting: A Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies

Bahman Varavipour, Mohammad-Reza Gheini, haniyeh javanmardi

Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke According to western epidemiological studies, 8-10% of ischemic strokes are attributable to intracranial stenosis. Three modalities of treatment considered for intracranial atherosclerotic disease include; aggressive medical therapy, endovascular revascularization with angioplasty and stent, and extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery. At present, medical management should be the first line of therapy for the most patients with symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. Angioplasty and stenting can be considered in some patients that are unstable or have multiple ischemic events in the territory despite aggressive medical management.

Cerebrovascular accident; Stroke; Ischemic; Intracranial arterial stenosis; Angioplasty, Stenting.
PDF

Sacco RL, Kargman D, Gu Q, Zamanillo M. Race-ethnicity and determinants of intracranial atherosclerotic cerebral infarction the Northern Manhattan Stroke study. Stroke. 1995;26(1):14-20.

Arenillas J, Molina C, Chacon P, Rovira A, Montaner J, Coscojuela P, et al. High lipoprotein (a), diabetes, and the extent of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. Neurology. 2004;63(1):27-32.

Elwan ME, El Sheikh WM, Kabany E, Aly R, Nirmeen K, Soliman HS. Intracranial Atherosclerosis in Type II Diabetics and Correlation with Cognitive Impairment. Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry & Neurosurgery. 2014;51(4).

Wong KS, Li H, Chan YL, Ahuja A, Lam WW, Wong A, et al. Use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound to predict outcome in patients with intracranial large-artery occlusive disease. Stroke. 2000;31(11):2641-7.

Wong K, Huang Y, Gao S, Lam W, Chan Y, Kay R. Intracranial stenosis in Chinese patients with acute stroke. Neurology. 1998;50(3):812-3.

Huang Y, Gao S, Li S, Huang Y, Li J, Wong K, et al. Vascular lesions in Chinese patients with transient ischemic attacks. Neurology. 1997;48(2):524-5.

Gorelick PB, Wong KS, Bae H-J, Pandey DK. Large artery intracranial occlusive disease a large worldwide burden but a relatively neglected frontier. Stroke. 2008;39(8):2396-9.

Samuels OB, Joseph GJ, Lynn MJ, Smith HA, Chimowitz MI. A standardized method for measuring intracranial arterial stenosis. American journal of neuroradiology. 2000;21(4):643-6.

Chimowitz M, Kokkinos J, Strong J, Brown M, Levine S, Silliman S, et al. The warfarin-aspirin symptomatic intracranial disease study. Neurology. 1995;45(8):1488-93.

Turan TN, Cotsonis G, Lynn MJ, Chaturvedi S, Chimowitz M, Investigators W-ASIDT. Relationship between blood pressure and stroke recurrence in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis. Circulation. 2007;115(23):2969-75.

Suri MFK, Johnston SC. Epidemiology of intracranial stenosis. Journal of Neuroimaging. 2009;19(S1):11S-6S.

GOTO Y, YONEKAWA Y. Worldwide distribution of moyamoya disease. Neurologia medico-chirurgica. 1992;32(12):883-6.

Duan L, Bao X-Y, Yang W-Z, Shi W-C, Li D-S, Zhang Z-S, et al. Moyamoya Disease in China Its Clinical Features and Outcomes. Stroke. 2012;43(1):56-60.

Kraemer M, Heienbrok W, Berlit P. Moyamoya disease in Europeans. Stroke. 2008;39(12):3193-200.

Starke RM, Crowley RW, Maltenfort M, Jabbour PM, Gonzalez LF, Tjoumakaris SI, et al. Moyamoya disorder in the United States. Neurosurgery. 2012;71(1):93-9.

Baba T, Houkin K, Kuroda S. Novel epidemiological features of moyamoya disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2008;79(8):900-4.

Chaturvedi S, Turan T, Lynn M, Kasner S, Romano J, Cotsonis G, et al. Risk factor status and vascular events in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis. Neurology. 2007;69(22):2063-8.

Wong K, Ng P, Tang A, Liu R, Yeung V, Tomlinson B. Prevalence of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in high-risk patients. Neurology. 2007;68(23):2035-8.

Hankey GJ. Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS) Trial Is Warfarin Really a Reasonable Therapeutic Alternative to Aspirin for Preventing Recurrent Noncardioembolic Ischemic Stroke? Stroke. 2002;33(6):1723-6.

Arenillas JF. Intracranial atherosclerosis current concepts. Stroke. 2011;42(1 suppl 1):S20-S3.

Derdeyn C, Chimowitz M, Lynn M, Fiorella D, Turan T, Janis L, et al. Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial Investigators. Aggressive medical treatment with or without stenting in high-risk patients with intracranial artery stenosis (SAMMPRIS): the final results of a randomised trial. Lancet. 2014;383(9914):333-41.

Zaidat OO, Castonguay AC, Fitzsimmons B-F, Woodward BK, Wang Z, Killer-Oberpfalzer M, et al. Design of the Vitesse Intracranial Stent Study for Ischemic Therapy (VISSIT) trial in symptomatic intracranial stenosis. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases. 2013;22(7):1131-9.

Wang Y, Miao Z, Wang Y, Zhao X, Gao P, Liu L, et al. Protocol for a prospective, multicentre registry study of stenting for symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis in China. BMJ open. 2014;4(8):e005175.

Hanel RA. Endovascular Management of Cerebrovascular Disease, An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics of North America: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.

Zaidat OO, Castonguay AC, Nguyen TN, Becker KJ, Derdeyn CP, Nelson PK, et al. Impact of SAMMPRIS on the future of intracranial atherosclerotic disease management: polling results from the ICAD symposium at the International Stroke Conference. Journal of neurointerventional surgery. 2013:neurintsurg-2013-010667.

Mori T, Fukuoka M, Kazita K, Mori K. Follow-up study after intracranial percutaneous transluminal cerebral balloon angioplasty. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 1998;19(8):1525-33.

Mori T, Kazita K, Chokyu K, Mima T, Mori K. Short-Term Arteriographic and Clinical Outcome after Cerebral Angioplasty and Stenting for Intracranial Vertebrobasilar and Carotid AtheroscleroticOcclusive Disease. American journal of neuroradiology. 2000;21(2):249-54.

Jiang W-J, Wang Y-J, Du B, Wang S-X, Wang G-H, Jin M, et al. Stenting of symptomatic M1 stenosis of middle cerebral artery an initial experience of 40 patients. Stroke. 2004;35(6):1375-80.

Henkes H, Miloslavski E, Lowens S, Reinartz J, Liebig T, Kühne D. Treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic stenoses with balloon dilatation and self-expanding stent deployment (WingSpan). Neuroradiology. 2005;47(3):222-8.

Levy EI, Ecker RD, Horowitz MB, Gupta R, Hanel RA, Sauvageau E, et al. Stent-assisted intracranial recanalization for acute stroke: early results. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(3):458-63.

Durst CR, Geraghty SR, Southerland AM, Starke RM, Rembold K, Malik S, et al. Stenting of symptomatic intracranial stenosis using balloon mounted coronary stents: a single center experience. Journal of neurointerventional surgery. 2014:neurintsurg-2014-011185.

Maas MB, Furie KL, Lev MH, Ay H, Singhal AB, Greer DM, et al. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score is poorly predictive of proximal occlusion in acute cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 2009;40(9):2988-93.

Kurre W, Berkefeld J, Brassel F, Brüning R, Eckert B, Kamek S, et al. In-Hospital Complication Rates After Stent Treatment of 388 Symptomatic Intracranial Stenoses Results From the INTRASTENT Multicentric Registry. Stroke. 2010;41(3):494-8.

Nahab F, Lynn M, Kasner S, Alexander M, Klucznik R, Zaidat O, et al. Risk factors associated with major cerebrovascular complications after intracranial stenting. Neurology. 2009;72(23):2014-9.

Roubin GS, New G, Iyer SS, Vitek JJ, Al-Mubarak N, Liu MW, et al. Immediate and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis a 5-year prospective analysis. Circulation. 2001;103(4):532-7.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.