Study of Quality of Life Among Liver Transplant Candidates in Shiraz, Southwestern Iran

Zahra Parvizi, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Negar Azarpira, Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi, Reza Tabrizi, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

Background: Liver transplant candidates are under stressconditions which affect their Quality of life (QOL), a subject which is not well-understood and is worthy of evaluation. The aim of this study is to determine the socio-demographic variables about QOL of liver transplant candidates.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was evaluated QOL among 210 liver transplant candidates in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire includes demographic and socioeconomic conditions of the patients, in addition to another questionnaire on QOL which comprised 6 dimensions. The statistical analyses used included independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A two-tailed P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results obtained showed that the score off emotion was significantly less than males (P=0.05). Patients aged lower than 30 years and patients with lower BMI had a higher score of QOL (P=0.05). Single patients had lower worries than married (P=0.05). Patients with Governmental Health Insurance were less distressed and had more emotions than patients with other insurances who had a more emotional function(P<0.01). Patients living in geographic location 3 in Iran had less QOL than others (P=0.04. Regarding the etiology of disease, patients with cirrhosis had less QOL than those with Wilson and hepatitis B(P<0.05). Conclusion: The QOL of liver transplant candidates is dependent on gender, age, habitat, marital status, BMI, health insurance, and cirrhosis diagnosis. Because QOL is related to the psychological problem, it is suggested to provide psychological consultations on these variables. [GMJ. 2016;5(4):180-87]

Liver Transplant Candidate, Quality of Life, Psychological Problem, Iran

Kane RA. Definition, measurement, and correlates of quality of life in nursing homes: toward a reasonable practice, research, and policy agenda. The Gerontologist. 2003;43 Spec No 2:28-36.

Calman KC. Quality of life in cancer patients--an hypothesis. Journal of medical ethics. 1984;10(3):124-7.

Felce D, Perry J. Quality of life: Its definition and measurement. Research in developmental disabilities. 1995;16(1):51-74.

Cella DF. Quality of life: concepts and definition. Journal of pain and symptom management. 1994;9(3):186-92.

Uzark K, Jones K, Slusher J, Limbers CA, Burwinkle TM, Varni JW. Quality of life in children with heart disease as perceived by children and parents. Pediatrics. 2008;121(5):e1060-e7.

Packer N, Hoffman-Goetz L, Ward G. Does physical activity affect quality of life, disease symptoms and immune measures in patients with inflammatory bowel disease? A systematic review. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2010;50(1):1.

Younossi Z, Guyatt G, Kiwi M, Boparai N, King D. Development of a disease specific questionnaire to measure health related quality of life in patients with chronic liver disease. Gut. 1999;45(2):295-300.

Golden J, O'Dwyer AM, Conroy RM. Depression and anxiety in patients with hepatitis C: prevalence, detection rates and risk factors. General hospital psychiatry. 2005;27(6):431-8.

Paulson D, Shah M, Miller-Matero LR, Eshelman A, Abouljoud M. Cognition Predicts Quality of Life Among Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease. Psychosomatics. 2016.

Younossi ZM, Boparai N, Price LL, Kiwi ML, McCormick M, Guyatt G. Health-related quality of life in chronic liver disease: the impact of type and severity of disease. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2001;96(7):2199-205.

Miyazaki ET, dos Santos R, Miyazaki MC, Domingos NM, Felicio HC, Rocha MF, et al. Patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation: caregiver burden and stress. Liver Transplantation. 2010;16(10):1164-8.

Malek Hosseini S, Lahsaee M, Zare S, Salahi H, Dehbashi N, Saber Firoozi M, et al., editors. Report of the first liver transplants in Iran. Transplantation proceedings; 1995: Elsevier.

Martin L, Younossi Z. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic liver disease. Digestive and liver disease. 2005;37(11):819-20.

Sumskiene J, Sumskas L, Petrauskas D, Kupcinskas L. Disease-specific health-related quality of life and its determinants in liver cirrhosis patients in Lithuania. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2006;12(48):7792-7.

Mahmoudi H, Jafari P, Alizadeh-Naini M, Gholami S, Malek-Hosseini SA, Ghaffaripour S. Validity and reliability of Persian version of chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ). Quality of Life Research. 2012;21(8):1479-85.

Bisegger C, Cloetta B, von Bisegger U, Abel T, Ravens-Sieberer U. Health-related quality of life: gender differences in childhood and adolescence. Sozial-und Präventivmedizin. 2005;50(5):281-91.

Hagedoorn M, Buunk BP, Kuijer RG, Wobbes T, Sanderman R. Couples dealing with cancer: role and gender differences regarding psychological distress and quality of life. Psycho-oncology. 2000;9(3):232-42.

Riedinger MS, Dracup KA, Brecht M-L, Padilla G, Sarna L, Ganz PA. Quality of life in patients with heart failure: do gender differences exist? Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care. 2001;30(2):105-16.

Orfila F, Ferrer M, Lamarca R, Tebe C, Domingo-Salvany A, Alonso J. Gender differences in health-related quality of life among the elderly: the role of objective functional capacity and chronic conditions. Social science & medicine. 2006;63(9):2367-80.

Undén A-L, Elofsson S, Andréasson A, Hillered E, Eriksson I, Brismar K. Gender differences in self-rated health, quality of life, quality of care, and metabolic control in patients with diabetes. Gender medicine. 2008;5(2):162-80.

Hickman I, Jonsson J, Prins J, Ash S, Purdie D, Clouston A, et al. Modest weight loss and physical activity in overweight patients with chronic liver disease results in sustained improvements in alanine aminotransferase, fasting insulin, and quality of life. Gut. 2004;53(3):413-9.

Strassnig M, Brar JS, Ganguli R. Body mass index and quality of life in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research. 2003;62(1):73-6.

Sampogna F, Chren M, Melchi C, Pasquini P, Tabolli S, Abeni D. Age, gender, quality of life and psychological distress in patients hospitalized with psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatology. 2006;154(2):325-31.

Ganz PA, Lee JJ, Sim M-S, Polinsky ML, Schag CAC. Exploring the influence of multiple variables on the relationship of age to quality of life in women with breast cancer. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 1992;45(5):473-85.

Wenzel LB, Fairclough DL, Brady MJ, Cella D, Garrett KM, Kluhsman BC, et al. Age‐related differences in the quality of life of breast carcinoma patients after treatment. Cancer. 1999;86(9):1768-74.

Sadati AK, Rahnavard F, Ebrahimzadeh N, Maharloei N. The Experience of the Passage of Time as Narrated by Women With Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study. Women's Health Bulletin. 2015;2(3).

Sadati AK, Lankarani KB, Gharibi V, Fard ME, Ebrahimzadeh N, Tahmasebi S. Religion as an Empowerment Context in the Narrative of Women with Breast Cancer. Journal of religion and health. 2015;54(3):1068-79.

Penson DF, Stoddard ML, Pasta DJ, Lubeck DP, Flanders SC, Litwin MS. The association between socioeconomic status, health insurance coverage, and quality of life in men with prostate cancer. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2001;54(4):350-8.

Kohn R, Kratz JR, Markmann JF, Vagefi PA. The migrated liver transplantation candidate: insight into geographic disparities in liver distribution. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2014;218(6):1113-8.

Saab S, Ibrahim AB, Shpaner A, Younossi ZM, Lee C, Durazo F, et al. MELD fails to measure quality of life in liver transplant candidates. Liver transplantation. 2005;11(2):218-23.


  • There are currently no refbacks.