Trend of Risk Factors Changes for Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly Population in Iran

  • Afzal Shamsi Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Morteza kameli morandini Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, Iran.
  • Abbas Ebadi Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Seyed Qasem Mousavi Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases, Risk Factors, Aged, Nursing Homes


Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among the elderly living in nursing homes in Tehran during 2009 and 2015. Materials and Methods: Samples were selected and evaluated from among the elderly population living in nursing homes in Tehran in two time periods of 2009 (n=310) and 2015 (n=310). Data were collected using a researcher-developed questionnaire through a face to face interview and measurement of variables of blood pressure, body mass index, blood sugar and blood cholesterol and triglycerides. Results: The prevalence of heart disease, physical inactivity, overweight, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, hypertension, diabetes and smoking were significantly increased during a 7-year period, respectively by 19.9, 24.7, 20.8, 17.1, 13.6, 6.7, 4.7, 3 and 1.1% (P = 0.000). Conclusions: In this study, it was found that the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors is high and is on the increase in geriatric sanatoriums in Tehran. Therefore, a detailed and comprehensive planning seems necessary in order to identify, prevent and control the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.[GMJ.2017;6(3):240-248] DOI:10.22086/gmj.v6i3.781


United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241. Available from:

Afshar PF, Asgari P, Shiri M, Bahramnezhad F. A Review of the Iran's elderly status according to the census records. Galen Medical Journal, 2016; 5(1): 1-6.

Beard JR, Officer A, de Carvalho IA, Sadana R, Pot AM, Michel JP, et al. Chatterji S. The World report on ageing and health: a policy framework for healthy ageing. Lancet. 2016; 387(10033): 2145-54.

David AK, Taylor RB. Taylor’s Cardiovascular Diseases: A Handbook, 6th ed, Springer; 2015.

Fakhrzadeh H. Sharifi F. Cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences, 2012; 4(3): 1-9. [Persian]

Angoorani H, & Haghi M. Electrocardiography findings in Iranian Premier League football players. Galen Medical Journal. 2015; 4(4): 151-8.

Khansha R, Miladpour B, Mostafavi-Pour Z, Zal F. Lipid Peroxidation Product and Glutathione Levels in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Before and After Surgery. Galen Medical Journal, 2015; 4(2): 78-82.

Guo X, Rimbau AT, Estruch R, Martínez-González MA , Medina-Remón A, Castañer O. Lamuela-Raventós1 RM, et al. Effects of Polyphenol, Measured by a Biomarker of Total Polyphenols in Urine, on Cardiovascular Risk Factors After a Long-Term Follow-Up in the PREDIMED Study. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016: 2572606.

Aragona CO, Imbalzano E, Mamone F, Cairo V, Gullo AL, Ascola A, Mandraffino G, et al. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease. Stem Cells Int. 2016; 2016: 8043792.

Hobbs FDR, Jukema JW, Da Silva PM, McCormack T, Catapano AL. Barriers to cardiovascular disease risk scoring and primary prevention in Europe. QJM. 2010;103(10):727-39.

Critchley J, Capewell S, O'Flaherty M, Abu-Rmeileh N, Rastam S, Saidi O, Zaman S, et al. Contrasting cardiovascular mortality trends in Eastern Mediterranean populations: Contributions from risk factor changes and treatments. Int J Cardiol. 2016;208:150-61.

Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Statistics and Information Technology Office. [2015, march; 2016]. Available from [Persian]

Hatmi ZN, Tahvildari S, Gafarzadeh Motlag A, Sabouri Kashani A. Prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: a population based survey. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007; 7: 32.

Azizi F, Emami H, Salehi P, Ghanbarian A, Mirmiran P, Mirbolooki M, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly: the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. J Cardiovasc Risk. 2003; 10(1):65-73.

Zali MR, Mohammad K, Masjedi MR. Health and disease in Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education; 1993. Report No. 25. [Persian]

Mohammad K, Zali MR, Masjedi MR, Majd-Zadeh R. Cigarette smoking in Iran. Nezam Pezeshki J. 1998;77:33–7. [Persian]

Azizi F, Allahverdian S, Mirmiran P, Rahmani M, Mohammadi M. Dietary factors and body mass index in a group of Iranian adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study-2. nt J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001;71(2):123-7.

Azizi F, Rahmani M, Madjid M, Allahverdian S, Ghanbili J, Ghanbarian A, et al. Serum lipid levels in an Iranian population of children and adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(3):281-8.

Vassilaki M, Linardakis M, Polk DM, Philalithis Α. The burden of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Europe. A significant prevention deficit. Prev Med. 2015;81:326-32.

Saleh ZT, Lennie TA, Mudd-Martin G, Bailey AL, Novak MJ, Biddle M, Moser DK, et al. Decreasing sedentary behavior by 30 minutes per day reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Americans. Heart Lung. 2015;44(5):382-6.

Haskell WL1, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Bauman A, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007; 116(9):1081-93.

López L, Peralta CA, Lee A, Zeki Al Hazzouri A, Haan MN. Impact of acculturation on cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Mexican Americans. Ann Epidemiol. 2014; 24(10): 714–19.

Al Slail FY, Abid O, Assiri AM, Memish ZA, Ali MK. Cardiovascular risk profiles of adults with type-2 diabetes treated at urban hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2016;6(1):29-36.

World Health Organisation. Workplace health promotion. [Accessed 12th June 2013]. Available from http://

Cheng M, Li B, Li X, Wang Q, Zhang J, Gao H, et al. Correlation between serum lactadherin and pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;95(1):125-31.

American Heart Association. Understanding blood pressure readings. [Accessed 4th August 2013]. Available from

Geraldo A, Maranhão Neto, Antonio P de Leon, Vitor A Lira, Paulo TV, Farinatti. Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness without Exercise in Elderly Men with Chronic Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases. J Aging Res. 2012; 2012: 518045.

Kotsaftis P, Ntaios G, Savopoulos Ch, Kiparoglou R, Agapakis D, Baltatzi M, Hatzitolios A. Trend in incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in elderly and over-aged stroke patients between 2003 and 2007 in Greece. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2010;50(3):e31-5.

Kima Ch, Juneb K, Songb R. Effects of a health-promotion program on cardiovascular risk factors, health behaviors, and life satisfaction in institutionalized elderly women. Int J Nurs Stud. 2003;40(4):375-81.

Seyam Sh. Study of situation of elderly residents in Guilan elderly nursing home. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences.2002; 39(10): 119-26.

Hosseini S, Zabihi A, Bijani A. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in elderly population in Amirshahr. Salmand. 2009; 4 (11): 46-52. [Persian]

Mahdavi SM, Khalili Z, Sadrollahi A, Saadati B. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among elderly people in Kashan city, Iran, 2014. Cardiovascular Nursing Journal. 2014; 3(3): 6-13. [Persian]

Oser CS, Harwell TS, Strasheim C, Fogle C, Blades LL, Dennis TD, Helgerson SD, et al. Increasing Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among American Indians in Montana . Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(3):295-7.

Morrison JA, James FW, Sprecher DL, Khoury Ph, Daniels SR. Sex and Race Differences in Cardiovascular disease Risk Factor Changes in Schoolchildren, 1975-1990: The Princeton School Study. Am J Public Health. 1999; 89(11): 1708–14.

Strandberg TE, Sirola J, Pitka KH, Tilvis RS, Strandberg AY, Stenholm S. Association of midlife obesity and cardiovascular risk with old age frailty: a 26-year follow-up of initially healthy men. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(9):1153-7.

Patel J, Al Rifai M, Blaha MJ, Budoff MJ, Post WS, Polak JF, et al. Coronaryartery calcium improves risk assessment in adults with a family history of premature coronary heart disease: results from multiethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015;8(6):e003186.

Ranthe MF, Carstensen L, Oyen N, Tfelt-Hansen J, Christiansen M, McKenna WJ, et al. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(9):814-21.

Jose J, Al-Tamimi FA, Helal MM, Jimmy B, Riyami QA, Busaidi IA. Targeted study to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factor status among patients and efficacy of statins in attaining goal lipid levels in a regional hospital in Sultanate of Oman. Saudi Pharm J. 2015; 23(4): 371–6.

Elias-Smale SE, Günal A, Maas AH. Gynecardiology distinct patterns of ischemic heart disease in middle-aged women. Maturitas. 2015;81(3):348-52.

Azizi F, Emami H, Salehi P, Ghanbarian A, Mirmiran P, Mirbolooki M. Cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Iranian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2003;5(1):3-13. [Persian]

Jiménez Trujillo I, Jiménez García R, Vazquez-Fernandez del Pozo S, Hernández Barrera V, Carrasco Garrido P, et al. Trends from 1995 to 2006 in the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Spanish diabetics. DDiabetes Metab. 2010;36(1):29-35.

AlGhatrif M, Kuo YF, Al Snih S, Raji MA, Ray LA, Markides KS. Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in older Mexican Americans, 1993-2005.Ann Epidemiol. 2011; 21(1): 15–25.

Clarke P, Chan P, Santaguida PL, Colantonio A. The use of mobility devices among institutionalized older adults. J Aging Health. 2009;21(4):611-26.

Ninu P, Raghavan R. Aging and Injury: Alterations in Cellular Energetics and Organ Function. Aging Dis. 2014;5(2):101-8.

Patricia A, Rui N. Physical activity - the attitude of the institutionalised elderly. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2014; 14(1): 12-5.

Dinger MK, Oman F, Taylor EL, Vesely SK, Able J. Stability and Convergent Validity of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2004;44(2):186-92.

How to Cite
Shamsi, A., kameli morandini, M., Ebadi, A., & Mousavi, S. Q. (2017). Trend of Risk Factors Changes for Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly Population in Iran. Galen Medical Journal, 6(3), 240-248.
Original Article