Correlation of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of Children Younger than 12 Years Old with History of Preterm Birth
AbstractIntroduction: Intelligence is the ability of using the different powers and effective behaviors or adapting to new situations or diagnosing conditions and qualities of the environment. It seems that a considerable damage to the brain as a result of premature birth in the last weeks of pregnancy in the maturational - structuring process of the brain can be correlated with Intelligent Quotient (IQ). Due to the high incidence of preterm birth and its associated disorders and its impact on the society and according to a few studies in this field, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the association between IQ and preterm birth.Materials and Methods: This cohort study was performed on 303 children of school age. All subjects randomly allocated to cohort groups (n=147) or controls (n=156) with or without any history of preterm birth, respectively. In this study, in addition to demographic characteristics such as age, sex, gestational age at the delivery and parents’ educational levels, the standard Raven test was used by trained interviewers to measure the IQ in children. Then data were analyzed by Statistical software SPSS version 16.0 by central statistical indicators of independent T tests and Chi-square test. Significant difference was set at P<0.05.Results: The mean IQ of the children in the study, obtained the score of 99.75±9.26 regarding which the independent T-test results showed no significant difference between two groups. In this study, no significant relationship was found between age and gestational age and IQ (P=0.499 and P=0.255, respectively). But this study showed a significant positive correlation between IQ and weight and head circumference at birth (r=0.179, P=0.002 and r=0.299, P=<0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Unlike results of a few previous studies on this issue, no significant differences were found between the two groups. It is recommended that future studies to be done on broader populations, and behavioral and psychological dimensions should be considered.
Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ, Grebb JA. Synopsis of psychiatry behavioral sciences clinical psychiatry. 9th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2003:178.
Breslau N, Dickens WT, Flynn JR, Peterson EL, Lucia VC. Low birth weight and social disadvantage: Tracking their relationship with children's IQ during the period of school attendance. Intelligence 2006 Dec;34(4): 351-62.
Goldenberg RL, DuBard MB, Cliver SP, Nelson KG, Blankson K, Ramey SL, et al. Pregnancy outcome and intelligence at age five years. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996 Dec;175(6):1511-15.
Drane DL, Logemann JA. A critical evaluation of the evidence on the association between type of infant feeding and cognitive development. Pediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2000 Oct;14(4):349-56.
Oddy WH, Kendall GE, Blair E, De Klerk NH, Stanley FJ, Landau LI, et al. Breast feeding and cognitive development in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study. Pediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2003 Jan;17(1):81-90.
Horwood LJ, Darlow BA, Mogridge N. Breast milk feeding and cognitive ability at 7-8 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2001 Jan;84(1):23-7.
Silva AA, Mehta Z, O’Callaghan FJ. Duration of breast feeding and cognitive function; population based cohort study. Eur J Epidemiol 2006 Jul;21(6):435-41.
Roa MR, Hediger ML, Levine RJ, Naficy AB, Vik T. Effect of breastfeeding on cognitive development of infants born small for gestational age. Acta Pediatr 2002 Nov;91(3):267-74.
Jain A, Concato J, Leventhal JM. How good is the evidence linking breastfeeding and intelligence?. Pediatrics 2002 Jun;109(6)1044-53.
Lucas A, Stafford M, Morley R, Abbott R, Stephenson T, MacFadyen U. Efficacy and safety of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula milk: a randomized trial. Lancet 1999 Dec;354(9194):1948-54.
Roemer FJ, Rowland DY. Long term developmental outcomes of method of delivery. Early Hum Dev 1994 Sep;39(1):1-14.
Wannous S, Arous S. Incidence and determinants of low birth weight in Syrian government hospitals. East Mediterr health J 2001 Nov; 7(6): 966-74.
Taheri P, Abbasi E, Abdeyazdan Z, Fathizadeh N. The effects of a designed program on oxygen saturation and heart rate of premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan in 2008-2009. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2010 Jan; 15(2): 66–70.
Van Baar AL, Vermaas J, Knots E, De Kleine MJK , Soons P. Functioning at School Age of Moderately Preterm Children Born at 32 to 36 Weeks' Gestational Age. Pediatrics 2009 Jul; 124(1):251-7.
Baraheni MN. Raven's Progressive Matrices as applied to Iranian children. Educational and Psychological Measurement 1974 Dec;34(4):983-8.
Gurka MJ, LoCasale-Crouch J, Blackman JA. Long-term cognition, achievement, socioemotional, and behavioral development of healthy late-preterm infants. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 2010Jun; 164(6): 525-32
Reijneveld SA, Dekleine MJK, Van Baar AL, Kolle´e LAA, Verhaak CM, Verhulst FC, et al. Behavioral and emotional problems in very preterm and very low birth weight infants at age 5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006 Nov; 91(6):423–8.
Aarnoudse-Moens CSH, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Van Goudoever JB, Oosterlaan J. Meta-Analysis of Neurobehavioral Outcomes in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children. Pediatrics 2009 Aug; 124(2): 717-28.
Chyi LJ, Lee HC, Hintz SR, Gould JB, Sutcliffe TL. School outcomes of late preterm infants: special needs and challenges for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation. J Pediatr 2008 Jul; 153(1):25-31.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).